Thursday, April 21, 2016

What is One Year in Academia?

One Year is 24 Semester Units to 32 Semester Units.
24 Semester Units is defined by Pell Grant full-time student definition.
30 Semester Units is defined by Pell Grant pre-reform since a bachelor is defined to be at least 120 semester units (as a four-year degree) to at most 150 semester units (as a five-year degree).
32 Semester Units is defined as the maximum by several entities, including ABET.
Note that each College and University may define their own full-time student status at a level higher than the minimum required by Pell Grant to the IRS.

Full-time Student Status to IRS
  • At least 24 Semester Unit per Year
    • Defined minimum by Pell Grant
  • At least 18 Graduate Semester Unit per Year
    • Defined by the US Department of Education indirectly by defining Ph.D. level degree as at least 72 Graduate Semester Units
      • However, the Research Doctorate is defined to be three years. That is, the US Department of Education defined the Research Doctorate to be a seven-year degree.
      • Most institution define the Research Doctorate to be eight-year degree including four-year undergraduate. 
    • Exception exists when working on Thesis and/to Treatise and/or Dissertation.


The Remember the Pell Grant July 2012 reform?
In the pass, Pell Grant defines a full-time as 24 semester units, but a year as 30 semester units, so a student could take 7.5 schedule awards for their six years (180 semester units) at 12 semester units per semester in the duration of 15 semesters. The important aspect before the (July 2012) reform is that students should take the minimum amount of units to receive more schedule awards, but it has financial repercussions. The extra 1.5 schedule award (about $7500) is not worth 1.5 years of work ($45,000 to $90,000) that most students will be able to do if they graduate at the end of six years.

Then, it was reformed (July 2012) so students could only take 6 schedule awards. If a student takes the minimum of 12 semester units per semester, then for 12 semester (6 years / schedule awards), they will only complete 144 semester units. On the other hand, if they take the maximum of 21 semester units (above this threshold requires overtime permission), then they will complete 252 semester units. Many institutions have a lower cap of 18 semester units before requiring permission, so those students could get 216 semester units. The important aspect of the reform is that students could only receive 6 schedule awards.



900 Clock Hours = 24 Semester Units
  • 1 Semester Unit = 37.5 Clock Hours = 45 Academic Hours
  • 1 Quarter Unit = 25 Clock Hours = 30 Academic Hours
  • 1 Academic Hour = 50 Minute of Contact (At least 41 Minute and 40 Seconds of Learning)
  • 1 Clock Hour = 60 Minute of Contact (At least 50 Minute of Learning)
  • Compare to Europe
    • While 1 ECTS is roughly 25 to 30 hours, they accept equivalence with 20 hours; Specifically
      • 1 SCQF credit point = 1 England credit = 10 hours = 0.5 ECTS
        • ECTS = 20 hours
    • 5 ECTS = 100 hours = 4 Quarter Units 3 ECTS = 60 Hours = 2 Quarter Units
      • (3 Year Bachelor) 180 ECTS = 144 120 Quarter Units = 96 80 Semester Units
      • (4 Year Honours) 240 ECTS = 192160 Quarter Units = 128106+2/3 Semester Units
      • (5 Year Masters) 300 ECTS = 240 200 Quarter Units = 160 133+1/3 Semester Units
    • England 1 credit = 10 notional hours
      • (1 Year) 120 Credits = 48 40 Quarter Units = 32 26+2/3 Semester Units
        • Certificate of Higher Education
        • Higher National Certificate
      • (2 Year) 240 Credits = 96 80 Quarter Units = 64 53+1/3 Semester Units
        • Foundation Degree
        • Diploma of Higher Education
        • Higher National Diploma
      • (2.5 Years) 300 Credits = 120 100 Quarter Units= 80 66+2/3 Semester Units 
        • Graduate Certificate 
        • Bachelor : Pass/Ordinary
          • Early Exit or Demoted from Full Honours.
      • (3 Year) 360 Credits = 144 120 Quarter Units = 96 80 Semester Units
        • Graduate Diploma 
        • Honours
          • 1 First Class Honours
            • 70% average with all grades above 40% or
            • 75% average with one grade in 30% to 39%
          • 2i Second Class Honours Upper Division
            • 60% average with all grades above 40% or
            • 65% average with one grade in 30% to 39% or
            • 70% average with two grades in 30% to 39%
          • 2ii Second Class Honours Lower Divisino
            • 50% average with all grades above 40% or
            • 55% average with one grade in 30% to 39% or
            • 60% average with two grades in 30% to 39%
          • 3 Third Class Honours
            • 40% average with all grades above 40% or
            • 45% average with one grade in 30% to 39% or
            • 50% average with two grades in 30% to 39%
          • Demoted to Ordinary
            • 30% average with less than four grades below 30%
      • (3.5 Year) 420 Credits = 168 140 Quarter Units = 112 93+1/3 Semester Units
        • Postgraduate Certificate
      • (4 Year) 480 Credits = 192 160 Quarter Units = 128 106+2/3 Semester Units
        • Undergraduate Master
        • Postgraduate Diploma
      • (4 Year) 540 Credits = 216 180 Quarter Units = 144 120 Semester Units
        • Postgraduate Master
        • 60 Credit Master Master Thesis
      • (6 Year) Credits undefined for research component.
        • Doctor of Philosophy 
        • Prerequisite
          • 3 Year After Honours 1 or Honours 2i, OR
          • Master's Degree
    • 23 April 2016: Notional Hours in UK: Where the time scheduled for an activity includes time to enable the students to travel between buildings, this should not be deducted from the total time in that activity. For example, if in an hour timetable slot the teaching typically lasts 50 minutes with 10 minutes scheduled to move between buildings, this would be recorded as 1 hour. Thus, a notional hour is 50 minutes with 10 minutes transition, the same as an academic hour in United States.
  • Compare to Australia
    • 1 University of Queensland Unit = 3 Australian National University Units = 5 hours per week for 12 weeks = 60 hours = 2 Quarter Units
      • (1 Year Diploma) 16 University of Queensland Units = 38.4 32 Quarter Units = 25.6 21+1/3 Semester Units
      • (2 Year Associate) 32 University of Queensland Units = 76.8 64 Quarter Units = 51.2 42+2/3 Semester units
      • (3 Year Bachelor) 48 University of Queensland Units = 115.2 96 Quarter Units= 76.8 64 Semester Units
      • (3.5 Year Graduate Certificate) 56 University of Queensland Units = 134.4 112 Quarter Units = 89.6 72+2/3 Semester Units
      • (4 Year Bachelor Honours / Graduate Diploma)  64 University of Queensland Units = 153.6 128 Quarter Units = 102.4 85+1/3 Semester Units
      • (4.5 Year Master) 72 University of Queensland Units = 172.8 144 Quarter Units= 115.2 96 Semester Unit
        • Same Major
      • (5 Year Master) 80 University of Queensland Units = 192 160 Quarter Units = 128 106+2/3 Semester Units
        • Change Major or Master of Philosophy
      • (7 Year Doctor of Philosophy) 112 University of Queensland Units = 268.8 224 Quarter Units = 179.2 149+1/3 Semester Units
        • 3 Year After Bachelor Honours I or Bachelor Honours IIA.
        • Note that Bachelors Honours Degree have graduation classification
          • I - First Class Honours
          • IIA - Second Class Honours Upper Division
          • IIB - Second Class Honours Lower Division
          • III - Third Class Honours
      • Higher Doctorate
        • Half Year to One Year, 8 to 16 University of Queensland Units
        • Prerequisite
          • 7 Years after Bachelor or
            • Note Master = 4 Year Experience After Bachelor
          • 3 Years after Master or
            • Note Doctor of Philosophy = 3 Year Experience After Master
          • Doctor of Philosophy
    • 23 April 2016: If the hours in Australia are also notional hours of 50 minutes, then the conversion also needs adjustment. It is standard convention to have an hour as 50 minutes with 10 minute of break so students could travel from building to building so that they are not late to classes with consecutive time slot.
  1. One-Year
    1. US Certificate 810 Hours (18 Semester Hours same as Major Requirement of Associate Degree)
    2. UK Certificate 1200 Hours
      1. Higher National Certificate (HNC) OR
      2. Certificate of Higher Education (CertHE)
    3. Australia Diploma 960 Hours
  2. Two-Year
    1. US Associate Degree 2700 Hours
    2. UK
      1. Bachelor Ordinary 3150 Hours (technically 2.5 years (early exit) to 3 years (demoted from honours))
      2. Diploma 2400 Hours
        1. Higher National Diploma (HND) OR
        2. Diploma of Higher Education (DipHE)
          1. Foundation Degree fells redundant since HND already exists, and its role is suppose to be similar to US Associate Degree.
    3. Australia Associate Degree 1920 Hours
  3. Three-Year
    1. UK
      1. Graduate Certificate 3150 Hours (if same Major as HNC)
      2. Graduate Diploma 3600 Hours (if same Major as HND)
      3. Bachelor Honours 3600 Hours
    2. European Bachelor 3600 Hours
    3. Australian Bachelor 2880 Hours
  4. Four-Year
    1. US Bachelor 5400 Hours
    2. UK Master
      1. Postgraduate Certificate 4200 Hours
      2. Postgraduate Diploma 4800 Hours
      3. Undergraduate 4800 Hours
      4. Graduate 5400 Hours
    3. European Honours 4800 Hours
    4. Australian
      1. Graduate Certificate 3360 Hours
      2. Graduate Diploma 3840 Hours 
      3. Honours 3840 Hours
  5. Five-Year
    1. US Master 6750 Hours
    2. European Master 6000 Hours
    3. Australian
      1. Master 4320
      2. Ph.M. 4800 Hours
  6. Six Year
    1. UK Ph.D. 7200 Hours
    2. US Intermediate Graduate Qualification 8100 Hours
  7. Seven Year
    1. US Ph.D. 8640 Hours
    2. Australian Ph.D. 6720 Hours
  8. Eight Year
    1. European Ph.D. 9600 Hours 
    2. Australian Higher Doctorate 7680 Hours
 
1 man-year = 2090 Clock Hours = 55.73333333333333 (55 + 11/15) Semester Units
There are 2088 Clock Hours in a Year, and 2096 Clock Hours in a leap year, and on a 28 year cycle, it averages out to 2090 Clock Hours. This is not adjusting for Holidays.
Thus, if we desire to increase the load to equal a full time job, then 54 semester units per year is not unreasonable. That is, 18 semester units every 4 month term (Quadrimester in Latin, or "Semester" in United States) is a reasonable load.

When we adjust for the 10 National Holidays plus Black Friday, there are 2000 hours in a year, and 2008 hours  in a leap year. The 2000 hours = 53+1/3 Semester Units = 80 Quarter Units. However, we want a number divisible by 9 (or 12) since we want 3 four-month Semester and 3 (or 4) semester units per class, so 45 (or 48) Semester Units is reasonable at a pace of 15 (or 16) Semester Unit per Semester for three Semester in a Calendar Year.

  • 48 Semester Units per Year
    • 16 Semester Units per Semester
    • 4 Semester Units per Class
    • 4 Classes per Semester
  • 45 Semester Units Per Year
    • 15 Semester Units per Semester
    • 3 Semester Units per Class
    • 5 Classes per Semester
  • 48 Trimester Units per Year
    • 12 Trimester Units per Trimester
    • 3 Trimester Units per Class
    • 4 Classes per Trimester 
    • 4 Trimester per Year
  • 80 Quarter Units per Year (equiv. 53+1/3 Semester Units per Year)
    • 16 Quarter Units per Quarter
    • 4 Quarter Units per Class
    • 4 Classes per Quarter
    • 5 Quarter per Year
  • 80 Quarter Units per Year (equiv. 53+1/3 Semester Units per Year)
    • 20 Quarter Units per Quarter
    • 4 Quarter Units per Class and 5 Classes per Quarter OR
    • 5 Quarter Units per Class and 4 Classes per Quarter
    • 4 Quarter per Year
  • 75 Quarter Units per Year (equiv. 50 Semester Units per Year) 
    • 15 Quarter Units per Quarter
    • 3 Quarter Units per Class
    • 5 Classes per Quarter
    • 5 Quarter per Year
  • 72 Quarter Units per Year (equiv. 48 Semester Units per Year)
    • 18 Quarter Units per Quarter 
    • 3 Quarter Units per Class
    • 6 Classes per Quarter
    • 4 Quarter per Year
  • 64 Quarter Units per Year (equiv. 42+2/3 Semester Units per Year)
    • 16 Quarter Units per Quarter
    • 4 Quarter Units per Class
    • 4 Classes per Quarter
    • 4 Quarter per Year
Compare the 48 Semester Units and the 80 Quarter Units Bold Version. Both are 16 Term Units per Term, so the load per week are 48 academic hours (40 clock hours) per week. However, this shows the advantage of the Five Quarter System in optimizing the amount of time. The Semester System is 45 weeks (15 weeks for each Semester), but the Five Quarter System is 50 weeks (10 weeks for each Quarter). The Four Quarter System is 48 weeks (12 weeks per Quarter) but the weekly load is heavier since it is 20 Term Units per Term, so the load is 60 academic hours (50 clock hours) per week. The Four Trimester System is also 48 weeks (12 weeks per trimester), and each class meets 4 academic hours for 20 academic hours per week However, it totals 48 Trimester Units = 48 Semester Units < 80 Quarter Units = 53+1/3 Semester Units even though the work load is identical to the Four Quarter System in terms of time per class, but the amount of class per term is 4 instead of 5. If in the Four Trimester System were to have 5 classes per Trimester, the same load as Four Quarter System, the it would be 15 Trimester Units times 4 Trimester = 60 Trimester Units per Year. Same load per class and same number of classes per year but 53+1/3 Semester Units = 80 Quarter Units < 60 Trimester Units = 60 Semester Units. This shows why Four Trimesters are better than Four Quarters System since 3 Semester Units = 3 Trimester Units > 4 Quarter Units = 2+2/3 Semester Units for identical work. But a Five Quarter System at 20 Quarter Units per Quarter, that is 100 Quarter Units per Year is better. When comparing the Four Quarter System with the Three Semester System, for 48 Semester Units, the Three Semester System has 16 Semester Units per Semester, but the Four Quarter System has 18 Quarter Units per Quarter to get the same 48 Semester Unit equivalent. Thus, students in the Four Quarter System work more hours per week compared to students in the Three Semester System. Thus, the Four Quarter System is less efficient than the Three Semester System. The Three Semester System vs the Four Trimester System is easy to compare. The Four Trimester System requires 3 extra week to do the same load of work in a year, thus the Three Semester System is more efficient.

Ranking
  1. Five Quarter System (50 Weeks)
    1. Fully Optimized
  2. Three Semester System / Three Trimester System (45, or 48 Weeks) 
    1. Waste a small amount of time
  3. Four Trimester System (48 Weeks)
    1. More weeks per year then 15-Week Semester (This version is usually called Three Trimester System)
    2. Same weeks per year as 16-Week Semester (This version is usually called Three Semester System)
  4. Four Quarter System (40, 44, or 48 Weeks)
    1. More work per week for the same amount of Credits leading to burn-outs
    2. Excess vacation time (40 Weeks)
  5. Two Semester System (30, 32, or 36 Weeks)
    1. Excess Vacation Time
Note that the Three Semester System could also be called Three Trimester System.

Americans are not so exact with their usage of Latin for terms such as Semester (six months) and Trimester (three months).

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