Monday, June 5, 2017

Dungeons and Dragons 3rd Edition - Where 8 = 9 by the designers of ⅓ and ⅙ challenge rating

Challenge RatingPower Level

Remember that an odd level going up 3 levels is 3 times, but an even level going up 3 levels is ⁸⁄₃ times, not 3 times.

Thus, an odd level going down 3 level is ⅜ times, not ⅓, and an even level going down 3 levels is 3 times.

Why? Because going up 2 levels is 2 times is always true the same way a metallic dragon is always good.

And going up 6 levels would be 2 times 2 times 2 times which is 8 times in power.

Mistaken that going up 6 levels as going up 3 levels follow by going up three levels gives 3 times 3 times which is 9 times!

8=9 Math
8<9 Math
⅛ aka -5
³⁄₁₆ aka -4
¼ aka -3
¼⅜ aka -2
½ aka -1
½¾ aka 0

Why the sudden jump down from 1 to ½? Doubling of power = level gap of 2? Why not at level 1 to ½?

Here, we fixed that problem, and a few other (simple math) problems (designers failed to catch).

What's with the ⅒ challenge rating? Anyways, not many things fight such weak stuff. The only CR ⅒ monster is a bookworm that could only eat away your magic scrolls and spellbooks. Well, looks like somebody caught on and revise the challenge rating to ⅛. Check it out at Yet those ⅓ and ⅙ still looks wrong.

Tuesday, May 23, 2017

Four Solutions to Multiple Inheritance (Diamond Problem)

The Methods have been omitted for sake of convenience.
C++ Code
class point2 { private int x, y; };
class point3:point2 { private int z; };
class circle:point2 { private int r; };
class sphere:point3, circle { /*no new data*/ };

Solution 0: Diamond Problem is Intentional

C++ Code
class point2 { private int x, y; };
class point3: public point2 { private int z; };
class circle: public point2 { private int r; };
class sphere: public point3, circle { /*no new data*/ };

Solution 1: Data Synchronization -- A pain in the ass for compiler writers to implement. The compiler writer needs to have a data synchronization that synchronizes the same data inherited multiple times. This method is the hardest to implement; however, there is no need to change the current data structure. It has a keyword in C++ called "virtual".

C++ Code
class point2 { private int x, y; };
class point3: virtual point2 { private int z; };
class circle: virtual point2 { private int r; };
class sphere: virtual point3, circle { /*no new data*/ };

C Code for data
shallow view                                     deep view
struct point2 { int x, y; };
struct point3 { struct point2; int z; };         struct point3 { int x, y, z; };
struct circle { struct point2; int r; };         struct point3 { int x, y, r; };
struct sphere { struct point2; struct point3; }; struct sphere { int x, y, z, x, y, r; };

Solution 2: Composition is Inheritance -- Fold the data so that there is no multiple copies of any data. Function calls have multiple this pointers for each component that makes up the overall class. This solution will lead to stack overflow and also stackoverflow. There is no equivalent in C++.

C Code for data
shallow view                                     deep view
struct point2 { int x, y; };
struct point3 { struct point2; int z; };         struct point3 { int x, y, z; };
struct circle { struct point2; int r; };         struct point3 { int x, y, r; };
struct sphere { struct point2; struct point3; }; struct sphere { int x, y, z, r; };

Solution 3: Pointer Solution -- Use pointers to point to parent class data, then overlapping data would have pointers leading to the same data. Memory fragmentation is a pain. Use Solution 4 instead, unless proven that padded memory significantly takes more space.

C Code for data

struct point2 { int x, y; } spherePoint2;
struct point3 { struct point2* = &spherePoint2; int z; } spherePoint3;
struct circle { struct point2* = &spherePoint2; int r; } sphereCircle;
struct sphere { struct point2* = &spherePoint3; struct point3* = sphereCircle; };

Solution 4: De-Fragment Pointer Solution -- A De-fragment version of solution 3 by having the data internal to the structure on top of having pointers to parent class data.Remember that there is no "this" pointer in C, and C is not natively RAII. Resource Allocation and Resource Initialization are two separate steps in C, other than calloc() for simple structures. However, with a De-Fragment Pointer Solution, need to initialize those pointers properly. In C, there is variable declaration, resource allocation, and resource initialization. With a good constructor, RAII is possible, yet some compilers still complain uninitialized variable. Start with

struct ClassName * VariableName = NULL;
VariableName = new(VariableName, ClassType, ...(Initializers));

C Code for data
struct sphere
  struct point2 { int x, y; } spherePoint2; 
  struct point3 { struct point2* = &this.spherePoint2; int z; } spherePoint3; 
  struct circle { struct point2* = &this.spherePoint2; int r; } sphereCircle; 
  struct point2* = &this.spherePoint3; 
  struct point3* = &this.sphereCircle; 

Getting too many </code><code> got to get ride of them in HTML view and not Compose view.

Friday, May 19, 2017

1995 Learning Oxford Commas

Comma is required after each item in a list of more than two items including the second to last item in the list, the item before the word "and."

I don't remember the exact list, but there were at least three items in the list.

Sentence:    A list of first, second and third. <- a="" br="" comma="" missing="">
I say: "put  a comma before 'and'"

My Teacher wasted 5 minutes to force putting a comma after "and."

Why did she do that?

She could not explain why putting a comma before "and" is wrong, but here:

Sentence A list of first, second ,and third. <- a="" and="" before="" br="" comma="" how="" is="" literally="" she="" thinks="">
However, she could not explain why the above is wrong. The comma comes between "second" and "and" as they properly should right?

Sunday, April 23, 2017

There's a "Corporal" General, where's the Corporal Colonel

Standardize Rank Names for Military Fantasy Writers.

Let's look at the three tiers of officers: General Officers, Field Officers, and Company Officers.

In the General Officers, we have: General, Lieutenant General, Major General, and Brigadier General.

A Major General historically called Sergeant Major General.

The Brigadier General has a nice history. The term "Brigadier" in French Military is equivalent to "Corporal", hence the titles:

Captain General, Lieutenant General, Sergeant General, and Corporal General as a generalization.

In the Field Officers, we have: Colonel, Lieutenant Colonel, and Major.

Major was historically called Sergeant Major. Hence, the titles:

Captain Colonel, Lieutenant Colonel, and Sergeant Colonel. Thus, Corporal Colonel is a missing rank.

CategoryMain (Mainguard)Vice (Vanguard)Rear Upper (Rearguard Right)Rear Lower (Rearguard Left)
General (Stars) OfficersCaptain General
Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General
Sergeant General
Major General
Corporal General
Brigadier General
Flag (Stars) OfficersAdmiral
Vice Admiral
Vice Admiral
Read Admiral (Upper Half)
Read Admiral (Upper Half)
Rear Admiral (Lower Half)
Rear Admiral (Lower Half)
Field (Eagle and Flower) OfficersCaptain Colonel
Lieutenant Colonel
Lieutenant Colonel
Sergeant Colonel
Corporal Colonel

Naval Field (Eagle and Flower) OfficersCommodore
Vice Commodore
Rear Commodore (Upper Half)
Lieutenant Commander
Rear Commodore (Lower Half)
Company (Bars) OfficersCaptain
Sergeant Major
Ship (Bars) OfficersCaptain
Lieutenant Junior Grade
Vice Captain
Rear Captain (Upper Half)
Chief Petty Officer
Rear Captain (Lower Half)
Leading Seaman
Military Fantasy Low Rank Naval OfficersCommanderVice CommanderRear Commander (Upper Half)Rear Commander (Lower Half)

3 Major Rank by 4 Minor Ranks
4 Major Ranks by 3 Minor Ranks
Captain GeneralAdmiral
Lieutenant GeneralVice Admiral
Sergeant GeneralRear Admiral
Colonel GeneralCommodore
Captain ColonelVice Commodore
Lieutenant ColonelRear Commodore
Sergeant ColonelCaptain
Corporal ColonelVice Captain
CaptainRear Captain
SergeantVice Commander
CorporalRear Commander


3Mainguard, Vanguard, Rearguard
[Main/Chief/Full] General, Vice/Front-line/Vanguard/Lieutenant General, Rear/Rearguard General
4Mainguard, Vanguard, Rearguard Right, Rearguard Left
5Mainguard, Vanguard, Rearguard, Right Wing, Left Wing
[Main/Chief/Full] General, Vice/Front-line/Vanguard/Lieutenant General, Rear/Rearguard General, Right [Wing] General, Left [Wing] General
6Mainguard, Vanguard, Rearguard Right, Rearguard Left, Right Wing, Left Wing
7Mainguard, Vanguard, Rearguard, Right Wing, Left Wing, Right Flank, Left Flank
8Mainguard, Vanguard, Rearguard Right, Rearguard Left, Right Wing, Left Wing, Right Flank, Left Flank
9Mainguard, Vanguard, Rearguard, Rearguard Right, Rearguard Left, Right Wing, Left Wing, Right Flank, Left Flank

The splitting into 3 entities, and splitting into 5 entities are well known. They happen to be the standard way of splitting military into parts.


Vanguard fight the front-lines, and act as skirmishers. Their job is not to fight the main battle immediately, but to harass the enemies. Vanguards should never retreat behind Rearguards without a retreat order. After harassing the enemies, they retreat behind the Mainguard until the Main battle.

Mainguards fight the main battle. Hence their name! During the main battle, Mainguards and Vanguards will take turns during lulls of battle. During the switch, each person holds a frontage of one cubit (18 inches), otherwise, they hold a frontage of one yard (36 inches). The switch occurs by forming a shield wall. The second line of soldiers move up to the front lines. Then the worn out first line soldiers fall back to the back of their formation.

Rearguards maintains supply, night watch, and defense. They are to kill any Vanguards that run from battle. Vanguards must regroup between the Mainguards and Rearguards unless a retreat order has been given. Rearguards are the last ones to retreat. They wait for the Vanguards to retreat first, then the Mainguards retreat, and finally, the Rearguards retreat.

Friday, January 20, 2017

When would VAT work?

PutValue Added Tax (VAT) affects consumers more than investors; however, Unrealized Capital Gains Tax would balance VAT since it affects investors, but not consumers.

Unrealized Capital Gains Tax has an advantage since companies would only need to keep a record for two years, thus, making it difficult for hackers to trace investors' money. It also puts annonymy for investors in the long run. Only IRS has long records, keeping these records safe.

The best tax system is one that is not so complicated. Why have seven tax subsystems when we only need three subsystem?
Single, Married jointly, Married separately, Head of Household, Alternate Minimum Tax, Corporate, Short Term Capital Gains, Long Term Capital Gains.

Compare to VAT, and Annual Capital Gains (Unrealized and Realized).

PS: Two Types of Capital:
Shares of Income: Capital (Tools), Labor, Investors
Growth Model: [K] Capital (Investment), [L]abor, [M]aterial (Primary Products and Tools), [T] erritory (land ownership)

Markup increase, both Capital Share of Income and Labor Share of Income has declined, only Investors Share of Income has increase.

Monday, January 16, 2017

Random Encounters

Random Encounters originated from Dungeons & Dragons to motivate players to enter dungeons, raid those dungeons, and return with loot. An adventure consists of a trip from civilized land to dungeon and back. Players are limited to one adventure per week, and they may level up only once per adventure. Experience occurred at the end of each adventure with multipliers based on the player's actions. Half experience for violating alignment. Zero experience for violating character class ability and roles.

Another aspect of Random Encounters is that players would like to fast travel, and they would not like to move their designated 30 to 120 feet per 6 seconds (Combat Round). Instead, when players are outside of combat, they are in using Dungeon and Wilderness Rounds (1 minute), Dungeon and Wilderness Turns (10 minutes) or Overworld Rounds (1 Hour) and Turns (1 Day). It would be rare for a game master to allow Overworld Turns since a game day requires an average of four encounters. Instead, Overworld Turns only occur by plot. Technically, Random Encounters should only be rolled when players opt to use Overworld Rounds to fast travel. When they opt to travel at a faster pace, the sense of direction and such makes sense. Players do not know where in the overworld tile they are on, but they know they are in the three miles squared (nine square miles) overworld tile, usually represented by hex or offset square. The point is, if players wish to play Epic and detailed game, they would not opt to make overworld movement, so monsters should not appear randomly. Players playing in detailed mode would not get loss, since they are able to map themselves their direction. However, to play in Epic details, players take longer to travel, and have to deal with all the minor details. Dungeon Master may not create details of the world at such Epic scale.

Monsters are technically visible to the characters, but not to the players when they fast travel. Video Games does not take into account that players could move at difference pace based on the needs.

Assume marching is 50 minutes per hour with 10 minutes of break just like military, then

AD&D Segment or 3E Tactical Round (6 seconds) 30 feet of movement
AD&D Round or 3E Tactical Turn (1 minute) 300 feet of movement

AD&D Round or 3E Local Round (1 minute) 300 feet of movement
AD&D Turn or 3E Local Turn (10 minute) 3000 feet of movement

Overland "Round" (1 Hour) 1 league (3 miles) of movement
Overland "Turn" (1 Day / 8 Hours) 8 leagues (24 miles) of movement

by the pacing of D&D 3E, 1 D&D mile = 5,000 feet the traditional definition of mile = 1000 paces, and each pace = 2 physical steps = 5 feet.

In a Column March, marching behind tired troops cause troops in the back to get tired faster. Traveling slower than the fastest possible pace makes a person tire faster. This is why the Companies of a Regiment would change Marching Order each day.

In Chainmail one turn last a minute, but an unlimited number of rounds could make up a turn. Unlimited Melee Rounds occurs until one side rout or retreats.

Missile Troops Turn:
  1. First Volley of Missiles or Move
  2. Move or Second Volley of Missiles
  1. Cast Spell or Move
  1. Shield Wall (if possible) against first volley of missiles
  2. Move or  Charge
  3. Unlimited Amount of Melee Rounds
  4. Shield Wall (if possible) against second volley of missiles

Friday, September 16, 2016

While Loop using Do Loop

The if do loop:
if (condition) do {
    //do stuff
} while (condition);
is identical to the while loop:
while (condition)  {
    //do stuff
The if do loop is similar to assembly, and the while loop is the high level language version. Both exists in macro assembly.
Note that the body of the loops, and both the condition of the if statement and the while statement of the if do loop must be identical for the loops, if do and while, to be the same.

Tuesday, September 13, 2016

Teachers Teach, Masters Master, and Doctors Indoctrinate

It seems this is more like the Medieval Education System:

AgeYears Learning or TeachingMedieval School / DegreeModern Equivalent
6-14 yo8 Years AcademicLatin Grammar SchoolElementary School (Primary)
14-18 yo3 or 4 Years Academic
trivium—the verbal arts: 
  1. grammar
  2. logic
  3. rhetoric
Bachelor of ArtsMiddle School (Lower Secondary)
17-20 yo2 or 3 Years Academic
quadrivium—the numerical arts: 
  1. arithmetic
  2. geometry
  3. music
  4. astronomy
(Total of 6 Years of Arts)
Licentiate of ArtsHigh School (Upper Secondary)
20-22 yo1 Years Academic
2 Years Lectures
Master of ArtsCollege (Secondary Capstone)
College (Tertiary General Education)
Associate Degree
21-28 yo6 Years AcademicBachelor of Profession (Medicine, Laws, Theology)University (Tertiary)
Adultship (Bachelor's Degree)
27-31 yo3 Years AcademicLicentiate of Profession (Medicine, Laws, Theology)Professional Degree (Quaternary)
30-33 yo2 Years LecturesMaster of Profession (Medicine, Laws, Theology)Mastership (Quinternary)
Master's Degree
32-36 yo3 Years AcademicDoctor of Profession (Medicine, Laws, Theology)Doctorate (Sexternary)
Doctor's Degree

Note: Age is from youngest entry age to oldest graduation age.

Friday, September 9, 2016

California Law - Why does going in person requires more time than online law school?

Options for Law
  1. Go to an ABA accredited law school
    1. 2 Years accelerated (very rare)
    2. 3 Years Full Time
    3. 4 Years Part Time
  2. Go to a State accredited law school
    1. 3 Years Full Time (rare)
    2. 4 Years Part Time
  3. Go to a registered, but unaccredited law school
    1. Baby Bar after first year
    2. Online
      1. 4 Years of 864 hours per year
    3. In Person
      1. 4 Years of 270 contact hours per year (this is full time status)
        1. At least 1080 hour per year, if law school is graduate level
          1. 1080 academic hours = 900 clock hours > 864 clock hours
        2. Graduate Units requires at least 3 hours (to a maximum of 7 hours) of homework for every hour of lecture
          1. It is also at least 2 hours (to a maximum of 6 hours) of homework for every two hours of light laboratory
          2. It is also at least 1 hour (to a maximum of 5 hours) of homework for every three hours of moderate laboratory
          3. It is also no homework  (to a maximum of 4 hours of homework) for every four hours of heavy laboratory 
          4. A graduate unit (semester hour) is 60 academic hours to 120 academic hours
            1. That is 50 clock hours to 100 clock hours
        3. If students work the same 864 hours, then the ratio is 2.2 hours for every hour of classwork, right within the range of undergraduate level unless someone explain which component of law school is laboratory type of work
          1. Undergraduate Units requires at least 2 hours (to a maximum of 5 hours) of homework for every hour of lecture
            1. It is also at least 1 hours (to a maximum of 4 hours) of homework for every two hours of light laboratory
            2. It is also no homework (to a maximum of 3 hours of homework) for every three hours of moderate laboratory
            3. It is also no homework  (to a maximum of 2 hours of homework) for every four hours of heavy laboratory
            4. An undergraduate unit (semester hour) is 45 academic hours to 90 academic hours
              1. That is 37.5 clock hours to 75 clock hours
  4. Apprenticeship
    1. Baby Bar after first year
    2. 4 years of Apprenticeship at 18 hours per week for 48 weeks per year
    3. Teacher of Apprenticeship requires at least 5 years experience as an active attorney, and is still active
    4. Materials taught in the Apprenticeship must be identical to those in law school.
  5. Complete the first year of ABA accredited law school in good standing (allows a person to skip the Baby Bar*) and then do 3 years of any of the following:
    1. State Accredited Law School
    2. Registered Unaccredited Law School
    3. Apprenticeship
    4. *Law Schools have the right to revoke good standing to decrease this loophole. 
    5. *ABA also have the right to revoke Law School accreditation if they knowingly allow this abuse.
Why does going in person requires more time than online law school?

Wednesday, September 7, 2016

1 Year AP Class Cannot Exceed 6 Semester Hours without Doubling Up

A school year has 180 days, of 55 minutes each day with 20 minutes of homework. Therefore, 55+20 = 75 minutes per day, or 13500 minutes per year. That is 270 academic hours per year, or 6 semester hours per year given that one semester hour is 45 academic hours.

A school year has 180 days of one academic hour each day, adjust for 5 minutes to take attendance. On the other hand, community college has 54 academic hours per semester hour. Therefore, 180/54 = 3 and 1/3 semester hours per year.

Therefore, one year is between 3 and 1/3 semester hours (5 quarter hours) and 6 semester hours (9 quarter hours) including the boundary.

In between the two extremes, we have 270 academic hours per year at 54 academic hours per semester hour for 5 semester hours per year. This is the real minimum if teachers assign the appropriate level of homework.

Assume 2 year Physical Education requirement, and 6 subjects schedule. 
The recommendation of 10 minutes per grade level:
  • 12th grade: 120 minutes for 6 classes = 20 minutes per class
  • 11th grade: 110 minutes for 6 classes = 18+1/3 minutes per class
  • 10th grade: 100 minutes for 5 classes (assume no homework for physical education) = 20 minutes per class
  • 9th grade: 90 minutes for 5 classes (assume no homework for physical education) = 18 minutes per class
Assigning 20 minutes of homework per class:
  • 12th grade: 6 classes -> 120 minutes of homework
  • 11th grade: 6 classes -> 120 minutes of homework
  • 10th grade: 5 classes -> 100 minutes of homework
  • 9th grade: 5 classes -> 100 minutes of homework

Block Schedule 4x4 System
90 Minutes Lecture + 30 Minutes Homework = 120 Minutes per day * 90 Days = 10800 Minutes per Class / 60 Minutes = 180 Hours / 37.5 Hours per Semester Hour = 4.8 Semester Hours

Block Schedule Double Up AP classes: 9.6 Semester Hours > 8 Semester Hours

Regular 8 Period
40 Minutes Lecture + 20 Minutes Homework = 60 Minutes per Day * 180 Days = 10800 Minutes per Class / 60 Minutes = 180 Hours / 37.5 Hours per Semester Hour = 4.8 Semester Hours

Regular 7 Period
Low Time: 45 Minutes Lecture + 20 Minutes Homework = 65 Minutes per Day * 180 Days = 11700 Minutes per Class / 60 Minutes = 195 Hours / 37.5 Hours per Semester Hours = 5.2 Semester Hours
High Time: 50 Minutes Lecture + 20 Minutes Homework = 70 Minutes per Day * 180 Days = 12600 Minutes per Class / 60 Minutes = 210 Hours / 37.5 Hours per Semester Hours = 5.6 Semester Hours

Regular 6 Period
55 Mintues Lecture + 20 Minutes Homework = 75 Minutes per Day * 180 Days = 13500 Minutes per Class / 60 Minutes = 225 Hours / 37.5 Hours per Semester Hours = 6 Semester Hours

Saturday, September 3, 2016

When 1024 x 768 was the most popular monitor, 800 x 600 video games are the standard.

Legacy has a very strong effect.

Games used to have lower system requirements than the latest technology.

Before the 800 x 600 there is the  640 x 480 (80 character x 40 character) where 1 character = 8 pixels x 12 pixels.

Tuesday, August 30, 2016

The end of __stdcall? Or Removing 16-bit compatibility?

    Reverse compatibility with __stdcall would end. More like its descendant, __fastcall, would try to replace it.

    However, __stdcall and __fastcall cannot deal with 2048-bit because the callee could only clean up 255 with return 255 bytes and 2048-bit entity is 256 bytes.

    Therefore,  __cdecl would win in the end, and the callee cleaning up the stack would be part of history or it would need to change the opcode so that a larger argument (not one byte argument limiting to 0-255 byte cleanup of the stack) would allow the callee to clean up the stack.


    Looks like compilers went with the removal of 16-bit compatibility by having __stdcall cleaning more than 255 bytes.

    Embedded 16-bit processor could only pop so much from stack, so they could only pop 255 bytes.

    x86 could pop 65535 bytes off of the stack.  So it could handle up to 262144-bit processors. 524288-bit entity is 65536 bytes.

    Compilers also have the option to adjust the stack pointer instead of using a RET imm assembly instruction.

    I've disassembled some programs, and functions that have void parameter usually passes two word size 0, so a function is best to pass two parameters. Best if the two parameters are structure pointers.

    Opcode Mnemonic Description
    C3 RET Near return to calling procedure.
    CB RET Far return to calling procedure.
    C2 iw RET imm16 Near return to calling procedure and pop imm16 bytes from stack.
    CA iw RET imm16 Far return to calling procedure and pop imm16 bytes from stack.

    Off topic:

    Many old compilers, before 2010, still have the 255 byte limit on their variable argument functions, totally unrelated to fixed argument functions.

    Wednesday, August 24, 2016

    Unrealized Capital Gains

    When Unrealized Capital Gains becomes large enough, and the owners of this stocks, bonds, commodity has sufficient connects, then they are able to "liquidize" this Unrealized Capital Gains through loans by using the Unrealized Capital Gain as collateral for their loans. The Richer they are, the closer to parity they are able to "liquidize" their Unrealized Capital Gains.

    Therefore, Unrealized Capital Gains should be tax only if it crosses a threshold, but that threshold is too vague for now. Another way to counter Unrealized Capital Gains is to treat Loans as Income and loan payment as expense (negative income) to modify for the intermittent effect of loans. However, this will create a new vocabulary of some sort of "Bartering" without formally classify as "Barter" to bypass taxes.

    Tuesday, August 23, 2016

    Framing Matters

    Universal Basic Income vs. Progressive Taxation for an Equivalent Effect.

    Progressive Taxation for an Equivalent Effect will get more support from Progressives than the Universal Basic Income proposed by Milton Friedman and many others before and after him.
    • A.  A universal transfer of $10,000 to every person, financed by a 20-percent flat tax on income.  
    • B.  A means-tested transfer of $10,000.  The full amount goes to someone without any income.  The transfer is then phased out: You lose 20 cents of it for every dollar of income you earn.  These transfers are financed by a tax of 20 percent on income above $50,000.
    Actually, when you look at it, a difference of $2,000 may exist. Does the 20-percent flat tax on income includes the transfer or not?
    • If the 20-percent flat tax on income includes the transfer, then people without income will only get $8,000, since they have to pay $2,000 of their income.
    • Else the 20-percent flat tax on income does not include the transfer, thus the two statements are equivalent.
    Note that this now depends on the definition of income, but transfer is also part of income:

    "Some people who get Social Security must pay federal income taxes on their benefits. But, no one pays taxes on more than 85 percent of their Social Security benefits. You must pay taxes on your benefits if you file a federal tax return as an “individual” and your “combined income” exceeds $25,000."

    Now that we establish that transfer counts as income, this universal transfer does not define the minimum income to tax, thus, the two cases holds true. Option A: No income gets only $8,000, while Option B: No income gets the full $10,000.

    I found that Greg made another mistake.

    Thursday, August 18, 2016

    Bring Back Segments? 16-bit processor with 64-bit address space is possible!

    Since currently 48-bits could address almost all contemporary information, would it be wise to develop a 16-bit processor that has two levels of segments and one level of offset?
    • Upper Segment - 16 High Bits
    • Lower Segment - 16 Middle Bits
    • Offset - 16 Low Bits
    To extend it further, what about three layers of segments
    • Upper Segment - 16 High Bits
    • Middle Segment - 16 Upper Middle Bits
    • Low Segment - 16 Lower Middle Bits
    • Offset - 16 Low Bits
    for a total of 64-bit address space?

    Segments have natural loop of 65536 bytes, so there is no need to program a loop. An exit condition is necessary; it must jump to another segment. Multiple segment loops just require setting up the jumps properly. Even shorter loops does not need a dedicated loop command since the rest of the segment could be nop slide though this is not recommended as it is slow.

    There are several types of jumps:
    • Local Jump - 16-bit jump instruction + 16-bit Add to offset
    • Low Segment Jump - 16-bit jump instruction + 16-bit Low Segment Address, Offset sets to zero
    • Mid Segment Jump
      • 16-bit jump instruction + 32-bit address, offset sets to zero
      • 16-bit jump instruction + 16-bit Mid Segment, Low Segment and Offset sets to zero
    • High Segment Jump
      • 16-bit jump instruction + 48-bit address, offset sets to zero
      • 16-bit jump instruction + 32-bit address, Low Segment and Offset sets to zero
      • 16-bit jump instruction + 16-bit address, Mid Segment, Low Segment, and Offset sets to zero
    People are used to x86 memory segmentation, so they think that memory segmentation allows segments of different lengths (multiple of 16 bytes on x86, 16 bytes up to and including 65536 bytes), but in this system, all the segments are the same size - 65536 bytes. This system does not use overlapping segments so it could address more space than the x86 style of segmentation. Since every segment has the same size, paging and segmentation are not different once an expert Operating System programmer develops an Operating System for this system.

    • A Call is a Push of Return Address into the stack and Absolute Jump to the Function.
    • A Return is an Absolute Jump using the Return Address on the Stack point by the frame pointer.
    • Goto's are jumps but jumps are not gotos.

    Warning: this is only theoretical; there are no companies willing to build such a processor yet.

    Processers The x86 Family II

    As noted in Processers The x86 Family, the span of 37 years lead to 32-bit increase in addressing space from 1976 to 2013 we have 16-bit addressing to 48-bit addressing. This gives an average of about 1-bit per year, or 8-bits per year. Thus, it is reasonable that 2020 would be the year when it increase to 56-bit address space and 2028 to be the year when 64-bit address space would be complete.

    What does this tell us? We need to plan in a way so that every 4 years, an increase in 4-bits of address space should occur.

    AMD takes the lead after Intel attempts an alternative 64-bit processor instead of continuing the x86 family.

    AMD's x86-64 normally shorten to x64 does not allow 16-bit instructions in the 64-bit mode. Thus, only 8-bit, 32-bit, and 64-bit instructions are available. Only 32-bit applications with 32-bit and 8-bit instructions are compatible.

    Tuesday, August 16, 2016

    How much is a semester hour?

    According to College Board, its only 6 Academic Hours (5 Clock Hours).

    Each Advanced Placement Semester Hour is only 6 Academic Hours measured by the Dirty Dozen. This is a fact and does not change. The Rule of Minimum looks exclusively at the minimum, and since two Semester Hours of Biology Laboratory is only 12 Academic Hours, we establish this fixed and immutable exchange rate.

    Therefore, 8 Advanced Placement Semester Hours (48 Academic Hours) = 1 Semester Unit.

    This version of Advanced Placement College is 247 (248 if treat Music Theory as 6 units) semester hours, but with the reduction formula above, it is 30 (or 31) semester hours just enough to be one year.

    Every Post Doubles

    Every Post doubles with a draft empty post created when creating or updating posts.

    Color Won't Change

    Using the GUI only nest more layers of <*span><*/span> without changing the color of text.

    What is One Year in Academia (2)?

    Which an Academic Year?
    • 8 Classes (More Common in Public Universities)
      • 24 Semester Hours (3 Semester Hours per Light Class)
        • (Arts) 3 Semester Hours Lecture
        • (Light Science) 2 Semester Hours Lecture AND 1 Semester Hour Lab
        • (Hard Science - Separate Laboratory) 1 Semester Hour Discussion AND 2 Semester Hour Lab
          • Combined with (Hard Science - Separate Lecture) 3 Semester Hour Lecture
      • 32 Semester Hours (4 Semester Hours per Heavy Class)
        • (Medium Science) 3 Semester Hours Lecture AND 1 Semester Hour Lab OR
        • (Heavy Science) 2 Semester Hours Lecture AND 2 Semester Hours Lab 
    • 8 Half-Course (More Common in Private Universities)
      • 32 Semester Hours (4 Semester Hours per Half-Course)
        • (Arts) 4 Semester Hours Lecture
        • (Medium Science) 3 Semester Hours Lecture AND 1 Semester Hour Lab
        • (Hard Science) 4 Semester Hours Lecture AND 2 Semester Hour Lab
          • Note: This workload is still treated as 4 Semester Hour Class and that's why changes have been made so that Laboratories may count as Quarter-Course (Half of a Half-Course) at some institutions.
          • This type of Half-Course should be count as two classes.
    Comparison: Class vs Half-Course
    • Arts, Light Science
      • Light Class
        • 3 Semester Hours Lecture = 3 Hours per Week by 16 weeks = 48 Hours Lecture
      • Half-Course
        • 4 Semester Hours Lecture = 4 Hours per Week by 12 weeks = 48 Hours Lecture
          • There are no evidence to show that reading is more than just cramming for the final exam and/or writing term papers.
          • Note that most students treat their Fall Semester's Reading Weeks as Winter Vacation.
      • The strongest proof of equivalence between Light Class and Half-Course is Advanced Placement Classes with College Board recommendation of 3 Semester Hours, but  are counted as Half-Course of 4 Semester Hours.
    • Medium Science
      • Heavy Class
        • 4 Semester Hours
          • 3 Semester Hour Lecture = 3 Hours per Week by 16 weeks = 48 Hours Lecture
          • 1 Semester Hour Lab = 3 Hours per Week by 16 Weeks = 48 Hours Laboratory
      • Half-Course
        • 4 Semester Hours
          • 3 Semester Hour Lecture = 3 Hours per Week by 12 weeks = 36 Hours Lecture
          • 1 Semester Hour Laboratory = 2.5 Hours per Two Weeks by 12 Weeks = 15 Hours Laboratory
    Term Length
    • Semester
      • Community College tend to be 16 Weeks or 18 Weeks.
      • Public  Universities tend to be 15 Weeks or 16 Weeks.
      • Private Universities tend to be 12 Weeks + 3 Reading Weeks.
    • Quarter
      • Community College tend to be 11 Weeks or 12 Weeks.
      • Public  Universities tend to be 10 Weeks.
      • Private Universities tend to be 8 Weeks + 2 Weeks Reading.
    • Trimester
      • Community College tend to be 14 Weeks or 15 Weeks.
      • Public  Universities tend to be 12 Weeks or 13 Weeks.

    Calculus and Higher Calculus

    Splitting Calculus and Analysis into their components. Some components are underrated for the amount of time necessary for them. Univariate Calculus and Multivariate Calculus are not underrated. Typically Univariate Calculus forms two 4 unit classes. Multivariate Calculus would join with Vectors to form a 4 unit class.
    • Univariate Differential Calculus (3 Units)
      • Univariate Integral Calculus (3 Units)
        • Univariate Series Calculus  (2 Units)
          • Limit Analysis (2 Units)
            • Real Differential Analysis (2 Units)
              • Real Integral Analysis (2 Units)
                • Real Sequence and Series Analysis (2 Units)
              • Real Multivariate Differential Analysis (2 Units) (Additional Prerequisite: Multivariate Calculus)
                • Real Multivariate Integral Analysis (2 Units)
                  • Real Multivariate Sequence and Series Analysis (2 Units)
      • Multivariate Differential Calculus (1 Unit) (Additional Prerequisite: Vectors (1 Unit))
        • Multivariate Integral Calculus (1 Unit) (Additional Prerequisite: Univariate Integral Calculus)
          • Multivariate Series Calculus (1 Unit) (Additional Prerequisite: Univariate Series Calculus)
          • Vector Differential Calculus (2 Units)
            • Vector Integral Calculus (2 Units)
              • Vector Differential Analysis (2 Units) (Additional Prerequisite: Limit Analysis) 
                • Vector Integral Analysis (2 Units)
          • Complex Differential Calculus (1 Unit) (Additional Prerequisite: Univariate Series Calculus)
            •  Complex Integral Calculus (1 Unit)
              • Complex Series Calculus (1 Unit)
              • Complex Differential Analysis (1 Unit) (Additional Prerequisite: Real Analysis)
                •  Complex Integral Analysis (1 Unit)
                  • Complex Series Analysis (1 Unit) (Additional Prerequisite: Complex Series Calculus)
                  • Multivariate Complex Differential Analysis (2 Units)
                    • Multivariate Complex Integral Analysis (2 Units)
                      • Multivariate Complex Series Analysis (2 Units) (Additional Prerequisite: Complex Series Analysis)
          • Fourier Series (1 Unit) (Additional Requirement: Univariate Series Calculus)
            • Fourier Analysis (1 Unit)
              • Multivariate Fourier Analysis (1 Unit)
    Limit Analysis = Introduction to Real Analysis

    Limit Analysis is using sequences, series, and epsilon to rigorously define the limit. Infimum, Supremum, Limit Inferior, Limit Superior are other key component that needs to be rigorously defined with epsilonics. Limit Superior is necessary for a proof to prove the Chain Rule. There are more complicated alternatives.

    Productivity -- Which Productivity?

    Productivity by Hour

    The amount of Goods created or Service provided in an Hour is within a confidence interval for each individual, and as a collection, an global interval that cannot increase without additional capital, training, or experience. However, training and experience does not "grow" in the long run as a new generation of workers is needed. It is only cyclical, where between generations, there exists high training and experience, but when the new generation joins, the old generation retires, then the training and experience is gone and needs to restart.

    Productivity by Cost

    This measure of Productivity is better for cost or cost-benefit analysis. Paying a worker half as much will double productivity since that will half the denominator without changing the numerator. This type of productivity is important because "Illegal Immigrant" Supporters who wish to neither legalize nor deport Illegal Immigrants so that these "Illegal Immigrant" Supporters may exploit these cheaper labors from the Illegal Immigrants.


    Fairness should follow the trend of America. The split of labor is 1/3 to capital and 2/3 to labor. When the split of revenue defers from this ideal level in favor of capital, workers are exploited. When workers feels that they are exploited, they are demotivated from working, so their productivity goes down.

    Monday, August 15, 2016

    Faster Full Year System - Three "Semester" Year - Technically Quadrimester

    The system has three semesters in one year. Each semester is 16 weeks long, 6 days per week for 96 days per semesters. The breaks are: 1 week Late Summer Break between Summer Semester and Autumn Semester, 2 weeks Winter Break between Autumn Semester and Vernal Semester, and 1 week (2 weeks on 53 week fiscal years) (Also First AP Exam Week) Early Summer Break between Vernal Semester and Summer Semester.

    1Grade 1 Semester 1Grade 1 Semester 2Grade 2 Semester 1
    2Grade 2 Semester 2Grade 3 Semester 1Grade 3 Semester 2
    3Grade 4 Semester 1Grade 4 Semester 2Grade 5 Semester 1
    4Grade 5 Semester 2Grade 6 Semester 1Grade 6 Semester 2
    5Grade 7 Semester 1Grade 7 Semester 2Grade 8 Semester 1
    6Grade 8 Semester 2Grade 9 Semester 1Grade 9 Semester 2
    7Grade 10 Semester 1Grade 10 Semester 2Grade 11 Semester 1
    8Grade 11 Semester 2Grade 12 Semester 1Grade 12 Semester 2
    9APC Year 1 Semester 1APC Year 1 Semester 2APC Year 1 Semester 3
    10APC Year 2 Semester 1APC Year 2 Semester 2APC Year 2 Semester 3
    11APC Year 3 Semester 1APC Year 3 Semester 2APC Year 3 Semester 3
    12APC Year 4 Semester 1APC Year 4 Semester 2APC Year 4 Semester 3

    Advanced Placement College

    Year SemesterEnglishMathematics and
    Computer Science
    Arts and
    Physical and
    Health Education
    1-1English Language and Composition:
    Language (Advanced 11th Grade English)
    ProbabilityHuman GeographyEnvironmental ScienceEuropean History: Semester 1Latin:
    Semester 1
    Physical and Health Education
    1-2English Language and Composition:
    Freshman Composition
    StatisticsWorld History:
    Semester 1
    Semester 1
    European History: Semester 2Latin:
    Semester 2
    Physical and Health Education
    1-3English Literature and Composition:
    Literature (Advanced 12th Grade English)
    Computer Science PrincipleWorld History:
    Semester 2
    Semester 2
    Art History: Semester 1Italian:
    Semester 1
    Physical and Health Education
    AP Exams
    40 Units
    English Language and Composition (6)Statistics (3)
    Computer Science Principle (4)
    Human Geography (3)
    World History (6)
    Environmental Science (4)
    Biology (8)
    European History (6)

    2-1English Literature and Composition:
    Sophomore Composition
    *Computer Science ABUS History:
    Semester 1
    Semester 1
    Art History: Semester 2Italian:
    Semester 2
    Physical and Health Education
    Semester 1
    Calculus AB US History:
    Semester 2
    Semester 2
    Music Theory:
    Semester 1
    Semester 3
    Physical and Health Education
    Semester 2
    Calculus BC US Government and PoliticsPhysics 1Music Theory:
    Semester 2
    Semester 4
    Physical and Health Education
    AP Exams
    72 Units
    English Literature and Composition (6)
    Seminar (8)
    *Computer Science A (2)
    Calculus BC (8)
    US History (6)
    US Government and Politics (3)
    Chemistry (8)
    Physics 1 (4)
    Art History (6)
    Music Theory (5)
    Italian (16)
    3-1Driver's EducationLinear AlgebraComparative Government and PoliticsPhysics 2*Studio Arts:
    Latin: Year 1 ReviewPhysical and Health Education
    Semester 1
    Differential EquationsMicroeconomicsPhysics C:
    *Studio Arts:
    2D Design
    Semester 3
    Physical and Health Education
    Semester 2
    Multivariate CalculusMacroeconomicsPhysics C:
    Electricity and Magnetism
    *Studio Arts:
    3D Design
    Semester 4
    Physical and Health Education
    AP Exams
    51 Units + 11 Units
    Research (8)(11)Comparative Government and Politics (3)
    Microeconomics (3)
    Macroeconomics (3)
    Physics 2 (4)
    Physics C (8)
    *Studio Art (6)Latin (16)
    Semester 1
    Semester 2

    Semester 1
    Semester 1
    French: Semester 1 + 2Spanish Language : Semester 1 + 2Spanish Literature: Semester 1 + 3
    Semester 3
    Semester 3

    Semester 2
    Semester 2
    French: Semester 2 + 3Spanish Language : Semester 2 + 3Spanish Literature: Semester 2 + 3
    Semester 4
    Semester 3
    Semester 4
    French: Semester 3 + 4Spanish Language : Semester 3 + 4Spanish Literature: Semester 3 + 4
    AP Exams
    68-72 Units
    Chinese (16)German (16)
    Japanese (16)French (12)Spanish Language (12)Spanish Literature (12)

    • Hard
      • Chinese Language
      • German Language
      • Italian Language
      • Japanese Language
      • Latin
    • Easy
      • French Language
      • Spanish Language
      • Spanish Literature
    Red - 3 Units: Require 1 Hour Homework per 2 Hour Contact
    Green - Between Red and Blue
    Blue - 4 Units: Require 1 Hours Homework per 1 Hour Contact
    *Computer Science AB exams no longer exist.
    *For Studio Arts: Students take an available exam. Each year 1 or 2 of the 3 exams are available.

    • A - Differential Calculus (3 Units)
    • B - Integral Calculus (3 Units)
    • C - Series Calculus (2 Units)

    Friday, August 12, 2016

    Order of Operation

    1. Parentheses
    2. Exponents and Logarithms
      1. Formal Function Notation: ^(base, power) = base ^ power = number
        1. exponent = index = power
        2. number - what's the formal name?
      2. Formal Function Notation: log(base, number) = log_base_ number = logarithm
        1. Underscores represent subscript begin and subscript ends
        2. number - what's the formal name?
    3. Multiplication AND Division
      1. Formal Function Notation:  ⋅(multiplicand, multiplier) = multiplicand ⋅ multiplier = multiplicandmultiplier = product
        1. Formally, (scalar) multiplication should be juxtaposition, but that means 12 = 21 = 2.
        2. Note that dot product, ⋅, should be exclusively used for dot product, but is is common to use for scale product with numbers as noted: 12 = 21 = 2 would be problematic.
        3. Note that cross product, ×, should be exclusively use for cross product, but it is a common mistake for scalar product in Arithmetic. 
          1. The Cartesian Product is slightly larger than the cross product symbol, but people cannot distinguish them in written form.
      1. Formal Function Notation:  /(dividend, divisor) = dividend / divisor = quotient
        1. Note that obelus, ÷, should be use for ratio like it was traditionally used, not the modern division.
        2. In Algebra, Modulus (remainder function, not Complex Modulus, the Complex Magnitude function) uses the solidus, /, such as: Z/n. Alternatively mod is used, such as: A mod B = C.
    4. Addition AND Subtraction
      1. Formal Function Notation: +(addend, addend) = addend + addend = sum
        1. commutative property is required
      2. Formal Function Notation: -(minuend, subtrahend) = minuend - subtrahend = difference
    5. Ratio
    Note that Ratio either modernly written with a colon, :, or traditionally with an obelus, ÷, has Last Order of Precedence as noted by Matthew Compher.

    Division is either by solidus, /, or vinculum (a horizontal line where the numerator is above, and denominator is below).

    The obelus is a line operator. Arguments before the obelus becomes the numerator and arguments after the obelus becomes the denominator as would be for Ratio, not Division.

    Tuesday, August 9, 2016

    What is a Ninja (忍者)?

    A Ninja (忍者) is a
    • Nin ()Endure
    • Ja () Person, specifically a person that specialize in the preceding adjective.
    Hence, Ninja literally means an enduring person; a person specialize in enduring. Espionage requires Enduring and Patience, also means "Patience" in the Vietnamese definition of the character. Knowing the cognate of the character allow better understanding.

    Monday, August 8, 2016

    D&D House Rules - Muticlass to Gestalt Transition

    A character must take two levels under 3E Multiclass Rules before they may Gestalt the Classes. (Method A)

    Two Classes is Balance. Three Classes is Underpower.

    Change it so that take 2 levels in primary class, then gestalt level 2 from remaining classes. Then Gestalt All Classes. (Method B)

    For two classes, Method A and Method B are identical, but Method B adjust for more than two classes to prevent them from falling behind.

    LevelTwo ClassesThree Classes AThree Classes B
    1Wizard 1Fighter 1Fighter 1
    2Cleric 1Rogue 1Rogue 1
    3Wizard 2Sorcerer 1Sorcerer 1
    4Cleric 2Fighter 2Fighter 2
    5Wizard 3 // Cleric 3Rogue 2Rogue 2 // Sorcerer 2
    6Wizard 4 // Cleric 4Sorcerer 2Fighter 3 // Rogue 3 // Sorcerer 3
    7Wizard 5 // Cleric 5Fighter 3 // Rogue 3 // Sorcerer 3Fighter 4 // Rogue 4 // Sorcerer 4
    8Wizard 6 // Cleric 6Fighter 4 // Rogue 4 // Sorcerer 4Fighter 5 // Rogue 5 // Sorcerer 5
    9Wizard 7 // Cleric 7Fighter 5 // Rogue 5 // Sorcerer 5Fighter 6 // Rogue 6 // Sorcerer 6
    10Wizard 8 // Cleric 8Fighter 6 // Rogue 6 // Sorcerer 6Fighter 7 // Rogue 7 // Sorcerer 7
    11Wizard 9 // Cleric 9Fighter 7 // Rogue 7 // Sorcerer 7Fighter 8 // Rogue 8 // Sorcerer 8
    12Wizard 10 // Cleric 10Fighter 8 // Rogue 8 // Sorcerer 8Fighter 9 // Rogue 9 // Sorcerer 9
    13Wizard 11 // Cleric 11Fighter 9 // Rogue 9 // Sorcerer 9Fighter 10 // Rogue 10 // Sorcerer 10
    14Wizard 12 // Cleric 12Fighter 10 // Rogue 10 // Sorcerer 10 Fighter 11 // Rogue 11 // Sorcerer 11
    15Wizard 13 // Cleric 13Fighter 11 // Rogue 11 // Sorcerer 11Fighter 12 // Rogue 12 // Sorcerer 12
    16Wizard 14 // Cleric 14Fighter 12 // Rogue 12 // Sorcerer 12Fighter 13 // Rogue 13 // Sorcerer 13
    17Wizard 15 // Cleric 15Fighter 13 // Rogue 13 // Sorcerer 13Fighter 14 // Rogue 14 // Sorcerer 14
    18Wizard 16 // Cleric 16Fighter 14 // Rogue 14 // Sorcerer 14Fighter 15 // Rogue 15 // Sorcerer 15
    19Wizard 17 // Cleric 17Fighter 15 // Rogue 15 // Sorcerer 15Fighter 16 // Rogue 16 // Sorcerer 16
    20Wizard 18 // Cleric 18Fighter 16 // Rogue 16 // Sorcerer 16Fighter 17 // Rogue 17 // Sorcerer 17

    Now, how do characters Transition from Two Classes to Three Classes? They take the first level of the new class alone, and gestalt the third class. This will make their character behind in their third class compared to characters that start on a three classes build unless the switch at level 4.

    LevelTwo ClassesSwitch at Level 4Switch at Level 5
    1Wizard 1Primary 1Primary 1
    2Cleric 1Secondary 1Secondary 1
    3Wizard 2Primary 2Primary 2
    4Cleric 2Tertiary 1Secondary 2
    5Wizard 3 // Cleric 3Secondary 2 // Tertiary 2Tertiary 1
    6Wizard 4 // Cleric 4Primary 3 // Secondary 3 // Tertiary 3Primary 3 // Secondary 3 // Tertiary 2
    7Wizard 5 // Cleric 5Three Class BPrimary 4 // Secondary 4 // Tertiary 3
    8Wizard 6 // Cleric 6Three Class BPrimary 5 // Secondary 5 // Tertiary 4
    9Wizard 7 // Cleric 7Three Class BPrimary 6 // Secondary 6 // Tertiary 5
    10Wizard 8 // Cleric 8Three Class BPrimary 7 // Secondary 7 // Tertiary 6
    11Wizard 9 // Cleric 9Three Class BPrimary 8 // Secondary 8 // Tertiary 7
    12Wizard 10 // Cleric 10Three Class BPrimary 9 // Secondary 9 // Tertiary 8
    13Wizard 11 // Cleric 11Three Class BPrimary 10 // Secondary 10 // Tertiary 9
    14Wizard 12 // Cleric 12Three Class BPrimary 11 // Secondary 11 // Tertiary 10
    15Wizard 13 // Cleric 13Three Class BPrimary 12 // Secondary 12 // Tertiary 11
    16Wizard 14 // Cleric 14Three Class BPrimary 13 // Secondary 13 // Tertiary 12
    17Wizard 15 // Cleric 15Three Class BPrimary 14 // Secondary 14 // Tertiary 13
    18Wizard 16 // Cleric 16Three Class BPrimary 15 // Secondary 15 // Tertiary 14
    19Wizard 17 // Cleric 17Three Class BPrimary 16 // Secondary 16 // Tertiary 15
    20Wizard 18 // Cleric 18Three Class BPrimary 17 // Secondary 17 // Tertiary 16

    In California, Salary of $50,000 is $10 per hour. What is it in other states?

    Old Post Here

    All Workdays:
    • First 8 Hours Normal Time
    • Next 4 Hours Time-and-a-Half
    • Total Time Per Day: 12 Hours, 14 Weighted Hours
    • Total Time Per Year: 12 * 6 * 50 = 3600 Hours, 14 * 6 * 50 = 4200 Weighted Hours
    • $50,000 Salary / 4200 Weighted Hours = $11.90 Per Hours (Rounded to nearest cent).
    Note: $50,000 Salary is above the overtime Salary threshold ($47,476) so employers may require 72 hours work week of 12 hours per day, 6 days per week without needing to pay more.

    What's $15 per hour? 15 * 4200 = $63,000 Salary Equivalent. Yes, setting a minimum wage of $15 per hour is like setting minimum $63k Salary ($75k Salary in California).

    MS vs MSc

    Why does European Countries use MSc for Master of Science?

    That's because MS is Mastère Spécialisé, Specialized Master, or Specialist, an Intermediate Graduate Qualification (by U.S. D.O.E. Qualification Framework, above Master but below Doctor). A Master's Degree is usually a prerequisite to enter this program.

    Sunday, August 7, 2016

    Marching Squares, Surfaces of Marching Cubes, Diagonal Surfaces of Marching Cubes

    Some say that Marching Squares have Ambiguous Cases, but they limit what has Ambiguous Cases. Here is a list of the regular cases:
    Case 0: empty.
    Case 1: lower left corner.
    Case 2: lower right corner.
    Case 3: lower half.
    Case 4: upper right corner.
    Case 5: backslash.
    Case 6: right half.
    Case 7: no upper left.
    Case 8: upper left.
    Case 9: left half.
    Case 10: fore-slash.
    Case 11: not upper right.
    Case 12: upper half.
    Case 13: not lower right.
    Case 14: not lower left.
    Case 15: full.

    Here is a list of alternative cases. Basically, everything is not connected together. Case 5 and 10 are well known:
    Case 3 Alternative
    Case 5 Alternative
    Case 6 Alternative
    Case 7 Alternative
    Case 9 Alternative
    Case 10 Alternative
    Case 11 Alternative
    Case 12 Alternative
    Case 13 Alternative
    Case 14 Alternative
    Case 15 Alternative

    Here's another set of alternatives. Alternative 2 are connected vertically. Alternative 3 are connected horizontally. A and B distinguish for Case 15 Alternative 2 and Alternative 3:
    Case 7 Alternative 2
    Case 11 Alternative 2
    Case 13 Alternative 2
    Case 14 Alternative 2
    Case 15 Alternative 2A
    Case 15 Alternative 2B
    Case 7 Alternative 3
    Case 11 Alternative 3
    Case 13 Alternative 3
    Case 14 Alternative 3
    Case 15 Alternative 3A
    Case 15 Alternative 3B

    Why talk about these additional alternative cases? Well, Marching Cubes indirectly mention these alternative cases. If we look at a Marching Cube, then there are six faces that are marching squares, and 6 diagonal surfaces of rectangle 1:SQ-RT(2) proportion that also follow marching squares (adjusted for the length increased). Marching Cubes only have ambiguous cases when at least one of the twelve Marching Squares has ambiguous cases.